DNA: In Search of…Signs of Endogamy

That is the fourth in our collection of articles about looking for unknown shut relations, particularly; mother and father, grandparents, or siblings. Nonetheless, these identical strategies will be utilized by genealogists to ancestors additional again in time as nicely.

On this article, we talk about endogamy – the right way to decide when you’ve got it, from what inhabitants, and the right way to comply with the street indicators.

After introductions, we will probably be protecting the next matters:

  • Pedigree collapse and endogamy
  • Endogamous teams
  • The problem(s) of endogamy
  • Endogamy and unknown shut kin (mother and father, grandparents)
  • Ethnicity and Populations
  • Matches
  • AutoClusters
  • Endogamous Relationships
  • Endogamous DNA Segments
  • “Are Your Mother and father Associated?” Instrument
  • Surnames
  • Tasks
  • Places
  • Y DNA, Mitochondrial DNA, and Endogamy
  • Endogamy Instruments Abstract Tables
    • Abstract of Endogamy Instruments by Vendor
    • Abstract of Endogamous Populations Recognized by Every Instrument
    • Abstract of Instruments to Help Folks Searching for Unknown Mother and father and Grandparents

What Is Endogamy and Why Does It Matter?

Endogamy happens when a bunch or inhabitants of individuals intermarry amongst themselves for an prolonged time frame, with out the introduction of many or any folks from outdoors of that inhabitants.

The impact of this continuous intermarriage is that the founders’ DNA merely will get handed round and round, finally in small segments.

That occurs as a result of there is no such thing as a “different” DNA to attract from throughout the inhabitants. Realizing or figuring out that you’ve endogamy helps make sense of DNA matching patterns, and people patterns can lead you to unknown kin, each shut and distant.

This Article

This text serves two functions.

  • This text is academic and related for all researchers. We talk about endogamy utilizing a number of instruments and examples from recognized endogamous folks and populations.
  • So as to have the ability to discern endogamy after we don’t know who our mother and father or grandparents are, we have to know what indicators and indicators to search for, and why, which is predicated on what endogamy appears like in individuals who know their heritage.

There’s no crystal ball – no definitive “one-way” arrow, however there are a collection of indications that counsel endogamy.

Relying on the endogamous inhabitants you’re coping with, these indicators aren’t at all times the identical.

For those who’re sighing now, I perceive – however that’s precisely WHY I wrote this text.

We’re protecting plenty of floor, however these street markers are invaluable diagnostic instruments.

I’ve beforehand written about endogamy within the articles:

Let’s begin with definitions.

Pedigree Collapse and Endogamy

Pedigree collapse isn’t the identical as endogamy. Pedigree collapse is when you have got ancestors that repeat in your tree.

On this instance, the mother and father of our DNA tester are first cousins, which suggests the tester shares great-grandparents on either side and, after all, the identical ancestors from there on again of their tree.

This additionally means they share extra of these ancestors’ DNA than they might usually share.

John Smith and Mary Johnson are each within the tree twice, in the identical place as great-grandparents. Usually, Tester Smith would carry roughly 12.5% of every of his great-grandparents’ DNA, assuming for illustration functions that precisely 50% of every ancestor’s DNA is handed in every era. On this case, attributable to pedigree collapse, 25% of Tester Smith’s DNA descends from John Smith, and one other 25% descends from Mary Johnson, double what it will usually be. 25% is the quantity of DNA contribution usually inherited from grandparents, not great-grandparents.

Whereas we could discover first cousin marriages a bit eyebrow-raising in the present day, they have been fairly widespread up to now. Each legal guidelines and customs various with the nation, time, social norms, and faith.

Pedigree Collapse and Endogamy is NOT the Identical

You would possibly assume that pedigree collapse and endogamy is one and the identical, however there’s a distinction. Pedigree collapse can result in endogamy, nevertheless it takes multiple occasion of pedigree collapse to morph into endogamy inside a inhabitants. Inhabitants is the important thing phrase for endogamy.

The principle distinction is that pedigree collapse happens with recognized ancestors in more moderen generations for one individual, whereas endogamy is longer-term and systemic in a bunch of individuals.

Image a bunch of individuals, all descended from Tester Smith’s great-grandparents intermarrying. Now you have got the beginnings of endogamy. A pair hundred or a number of hundred years later, you have got true endogamy.

In different phrases, endogamy is pedigree collapse on a bigger scale – consider a village or a church.

My ancestors’ village of Schnait, in Germany, is proven above in 1685. One church and possibly 30 or 40 properties. In accordance with church and different data, the identical households had inhabited this village, and area, for generations. It’s a positive wager that each pedigree collapse and endogamy existed on this small group.

If pedigree collapse occurs again and again as a result of there are not any different folks throughout the group to marry, then you have got endogamy. In different phrases, with endogamy, you assuredly DO have historic pedigree collapse, usually again in time, typically earlier than you’ll be able to establish these particular ancestors – as a result of everybody descends from the identical set of founders.

Endogamy Doesn’t Essentially Point out Current Pedigree Collapse

With deep, historic endogamy, you don’t essentially have latest pedigree collapse, and actually, many individuals don’t. Jewish individuals are a very good instance of this phenomenon. They shared ancestors for lots of or hundreds of years, relying on which group we’re referring to, however in latest, recognized, generations, many Jewish folks aren’t associated. Nonetheless, their DNA typically matches one another.

The excellent news is that there are telltale indicators and indicators of endogamy.

The unhealthy information is that not all of those are apparent, which means as an support to folks in search of clues about unknown shut kin, and different “indicators” aren’t what they’re believed to be.

Let’s step by every endogamy identifier, or “trace,” after which we’ll overview how we are able to greatest make the most of this info.

First, let’s check out teams which can be thought-about to be endogamous.

Endogamous Teams

Jewish FolksSpecifically groups that were isolated from different teams of Jewish (and different) folks; Ashkenazi (Germany, Northern France, and diaspora), Sephardic (Spanish, Iberia, and diaspora), Mizrahi (Israel, Center Japanese, and diaspora,) Ethiopian Jews, and probably Jews from different places reminiscent of Mountain Jews from Kazakhstan.

AcadiansDescendants of about 60 French families who settled in “Acadia” starting about 1604, totally on the island of Nova Scotia, and intermarried amongst themselves and with the Mi’kmaq folks. Expelled by the English in 1755, they have been scattered in teams to numerous diasporic areas the place they continued to intermarry and the place their descendants are discovered in the present day. Some Acadians turned the Cajuns of Louisiana.

Anabaptist Protestant FaithsAmish, Mennonite, and Brethren (Dunkards) and their offshoots are Protestant non secular sects based in Europe within the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries on the precept of baptizing solely adults or people who find themselves sufficiently old to decide on to comply with the religion, or rebaptizing individuals who had been beforehand baptized as youngsters. These Anabaptist faiths are inclined to marry inside their very own group or church and infrequently expel those that marry outdoors of the religion. Many emigrated to the American colonies and elsewhere, in search of non secular freedom. Often these teams would find in shut proximity and intermarry, however not marry outdoors of different Anabaptist denominations.

Native American (Indigenous) Folks – all indigenous peoples present in North and South America earlier than European colonization descended from a small variety of authentic founders who in all probability arrived at a number of occasions.

Indigenous Pacific Islanders – Together with indigenous peoples of Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii previous to colonization. They’re in all probability equally as endogamous as Native American folks, however I don’t have particular examples to share.

Villages – European or different villages with little influx or whose residents have been restricted from leaving over lots of of years.

Different teams could have vital a number of strains of pedigree collapse and due to this fact change into endogamous over time. Some folks from Newfoundland, French Canadians, and Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) come to thoughts.

Endogamy is a course of that happens over time.

Endogamy and Unknown Kin

If you understand who your kin are, you might already know you’re from an endogamous inhabitants, however in the event you’re looking for shut kin, it’s useful to have the ability to decide when you’ve got endogamous heritage, no less than in latest generations.

If you understand nothing about both father or mother, a few of these instruments gained’t show you how to, no less than not initially, however others will. Nonetheless, as you add to your data base, the opposite instruments will change into extra helpful.

If you understand the id of 1 father or mother, this course of turns into no less than considerably simpler.

In future articles, we’ll search particularly for fogeys and every of your 4 grandparents. On this article, I’ll overview every of the diagnostic instruments and strategies you should use to find out when you’ve got endogamy, and maybe pinpoint the supply.

The Problem

Folks with endogamous heritage are associated in a number of, unknown methods, over many generations. They could even be associated in recognized methods in latest generations.

If each of your mother and father share the SAME endogamous tradition or group of kin:

  • You will have considerably extra autosomal DNA matches than folks with out endogamy, except that group of individuals is under-sampled. Jewish folks have considerably extra matches, however Native folks have fewer attributable to under-sampling.
  • You could expertise a higher-than-normal cM (centiMorgan) complete for estimated relationships, particularly extra distant relationships, 3C and past.
  • You should have many matches associated to you on each your maternal and paternal sides.
  • Components of your autosomal DNA would be the identical on each your mom’s and father’s sides, which means your DNA will probably be absolutely equivalent in some places. (I’ll clarify extra in a minute.)

If both (or each) of your mother and father are from an endogamous inhabitants, you:

  • Will, in some instances, carry figuring out Y and mitochondrial DNA that factors to a selected endogamous group. That is true for Native folks, will be true for Jewish folks and Pacific Islanders, however isn’t true for Anabaptist folks.

One Measurement Does NOT Match All

Please be aware that there is no such thing as a “one dimension matches all.”

Every or any of those instruments could present related hints, relying on:

  • Your heritage
  • What number of different folks have examined from the related inhabitants group
  • What number of shut or distant kin have examined
  • In case your mother and father share the identical heritage
  • Your distinctive DNA inheritance sample
  • In case your mother and father, individually, have been absolutely endogamous or solely partly endogamous, and the way far again generationally that endogamy occurred

For instance, in my very own family tree, my maternal grandmother’s father was Acadian on his father’s facet. Whereas I’m not absolutely endogamous, I’ve considerably extra matches by that line proportionally than on my different strains.

I’ve Brethren endogamy on my mom’s facet through her paternal grandmother.

Endogamous ancestors are proven with crimson stars on my mom’s pedigree chart, above. Nonetheless, please be aware that her maternal and paternal endogamous ancestors are usually not from the identical endogamous inhabitants.

Nonetheless, I STILL have fewer matches on my mom’s facet in complete than on my father’s facet as a result of my mom has latest Dutch and up to date German immigrants which reduces her complete variety of matches. Neither of these strains have had as a lot time to supply descendants within the US, and Europe is under-sampled compared with the US the place extra folks are inclined to take DNA checks as a result of they’re looking for the place they got here from.

My father’s ancestors have been within the US because it was a British Colony, and I’ve many extra cousins who’ve examined on his facet than mom’s.

For those who checked out my pedigree chart and thought to your self, “that’s messy,” you’d be proper.

The “endogamy means extra matches” axiom doesn’t maintain true for me, comparatively, between my mother and father – partially as a result of my mom’s German and Dutch strains are such latest immigrants.

The variety of matches alone isn’t going to inform this story.

We’re going to want to take a look at a number of items and elements for extra info. Let’s begin with ethnicity.

Ethnicity and Populations

Ethnicity is usually a double-edged sword. It will possibly inform you precisely nothing you couldn’t discern by trying within the mirror, or, conversely, it may be a wealth of data.

Ethnicity reveals the elements of the world the place your ancestors originated. When looking for latest ancestors, you’re most all in favour of majority ethnicity, which means the 50% of your DNA that you just acquired from every of your mother and father.

Ethnicity outcomes at every vendor are straightforward to search out and comparatively straightforward to grasp.

This particular person at FamilyTreeDNA is 100% Ashkenazi Jewish.

In the event that they have been 50% Jewish, we may then estimate, and that’s an necessary phrase, that both of their mother and father was absolutely Jewish, and never the opposite, or that two of their grandparents have been Jewish, though not essentially on the identical facet.

However, my mom’s ethnicity, proven beneath, has nothing exceptional that might level to any majority endogamous inhabitants, but she has two.

The one trace of endogamy from ethnicity can be her ~1% Americas, and that isn’t related for locating shut kin. Nonetheless, minority ancestry may be very related for identifying Native ancestors, which I wrote about, here.

You possibly can correlate or monitor your ethnicity segments to particular ancestors, which I discussed in the article, Native American & Minority Ancestors Identified Using DNAPainter Plus Ethnicity Segments, here.

Since I wrote that article, FamilyTreeDNA has added the function of ethnicity or inhabitants Chromosome Portray, primarily based on the place every of your populations fall in your chromosomes.

On this instance on chromosome 1, I’ve European ancestry (blue,) aside from the pink Native phase, which happens on the next phase in the identical location on my mom’s chromosome 1 as nicely.

Each 23andMe, and FamilyTreeDNA present chromosome portray AND the related phase info so you’ll be able to establish the related ancestors.

Ancestry is within the technique of rolling out an ethnicity portray function, BUT, it has no phase or related matching info. Whereas it’s attention-grabbing eye sweet, it’s not terribly helpful past the ethnicity info that Ancestry already supplies. Nonetheless, Jonny Perl at DNAPainter has devised a solution to estimate Ancestry’s start and stop locations, here. Option to go Jonny!

Now all it’s worthwhile to do is persuade your Ancestry matches to add their DNA file to one of many three databases, FamilyTreeDNA, MyHeritage, and GEDMatch, that settle for transfers, aka uploads. This permits matching with phase information so to establish who matches you on that phase, monitor your ancestors, and paint your ancestral segments at DNAPainter.

I offered step-by-step instructions, here, for downloading your uncooked DNA file from every vendor with the intention to add the file to a different vendor.

Ethnicity Sides

Three of the 4 DNA testing distributors, 23andMe, FamilyTreeDNA, and not too long ago, Ancestry, try to section your ethnicity DNA, which means to assign it to at least one parental “facet” or the opposite – each in complete and on every chromosome.

Right here’s Ancestry’s SideView, the place your DNA is estimated to belong to father or mother 1 and father or mother 2. I detailed the right way to decide which facet is which, here, and whereas that article was written specifically pertaining to Ancestry’s SideView, the approach is related for all of the distributors who try to divide your DNA into mother and father, a method often called phasing.

I say “try” as a result of phasing could or will not be correct, which means the highest chromosome could not at all times be father or mother 1, and the underside chromosome could not at all times be chromosome 2.

Right here’s an instance at 23andMe.

See the 2 yellow segments. They’re each assigned as Native. I occur to know one is from the mom and one is from the daddy, but they’re each displayed on the “prime” chromosome, which one would interpret to be the identical father or mother.

I’m completely constructive this isn’t the case as a result of this can be a shut member of the family, and I’ve the DNA of the father or mother who contributed the Native phase on chromosome 1, on the highest chromosome. That father or mother doesn’t have a Native phase on chromosome 2 to contribute. In order that Native phase needed to be contributed by the opposite father or mother, nevertheless it’s additionally proven on the highest chromosome.

The DNA segments circled in purple belong collectively on the identical “facet” and have been contributed to the tester by the identical father or mother. The Native phase on chromosome 2 abuts a purple African phase, suggesting maybe that the ancestor who contributed that phase was combined between these ethnicities. Within the US, that means enslavement.

The opposite African segments, circled, are proven on the second chromosome in every pair.

To be clear, father or mother 1 isn’t assigned by the distributors to both mom or father and can differ by individual. Your father or mother 1, or the father or mother on the highest chromosome could also be your mom and one other individual’s father or mother 1 could also be their father.

As proven on this instance, mother and father can differ by chromosome, a phenomenon often called “strand swap.” Often, the DNA may even be swapped inside a chromosome task.

You possibly can, nonetheless, get an concept of the division of your DNA at any particular location. As proven above, you’ll be able to solely have a most of two populations of DNA on anyone chromosome location.

In our instance above, this individual’s majority ancestry is European (blue.) On every chromosome the place we discover a minority phase, the alternative chromosome in the identical location is European, which means blue.

Let’s take a look at one other instance.

At FamilyTreeDNA, the individual whose ethnicity portray is proven beneath has a Native American (pink) ancestor on their father’s facet. FamilyTreeDNA has appropriately phased or recognized their Native segments as all belonging to the second chromosome in every pair.

Taking a look at chromosome 18, for instance, most of their father’s chromosome is Native American (pink). The opposite father or mother’s chromosome is European (darkish blue) at those self same places.

If one of many mother and father was of 1 ethnicity, and the opposite father or mother is a totally totally different ethnicity, then one bar of every chromosome can be all pink, for instance, and one can be fully blue, representing the opposite ethnicity.

Phasing ethnicity or populations to maternal and paternal sides isn’t foolproof, and every chromosome is phased individually.

Ethnicity can, in some instances, offer you a very good concept of what you’re coping with when it comes to heritage and endogamy.

If somebody had an Ashkenazi Jewish father and European mom, for instance, one copy of every chromosome can be yellow (Ashkenazi Jewish), and one can be blue (European.)

Nonetheless, if every of their mother and father have been half European Jewish and half European (not Jewish), then their totally different coloured segments can be scattered throughout their total set of chromosomes.

On this case, each of the tester’s mother and father are combined – European Jewish (inexperienced) and Western Europe (blue.) We all know each mother and father are admixed from the identical two populations as a result of in some places, each mother and father contributed blue (Western Europe), and in different places, each contributed Jewish (inexperienced) segments.

Each MyHeritage and Ancestry present a secondary device that’s related to ethnicity, however totally different and customarily in more moderen occasions.

Ancestry’s DNA Communities

Whereas your ethnicity could not level to something terribly thrilling when it comes to endogamy, Genetic Communities would possibly. Ancestry says {that a} DNA Group is a bunch of people that share DNA as a result of their kin not too long ago lived in the identical place on the identical time, and that communities are a lot smaller than ethnicity areas and attain again solely about 50-300 years.

Based mostly on the ancestors’ places within the timber of me and my matches, Ancestry has decided that I’m related to 2 communities. In my case, the blue group is clearly my father’s line. The orange group could possibly be both father or mother, or perhaps a mixture of each.

My endogamous Brethren could possibly be displaying up in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, nevertheless it’s unsure, partially, as a result of my father’s ancestral strains are present in Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland too.

These aren’t helpful for me, however they might be extra helpful for absolutely endogamous folks, particularly along side ethnicity.

My Acadian cousin’s European ethnicity isn’t informative.

Nonetheless, viewing his DNA Communities places his French heritage into perspective, particularly mixed along with his match surnames.

I wrote about DNA Communities when it was launched with the identify Genetic Communities, here.

MyHeritage’s Genetic Teams

MyHeritage additionally supplies an identical function that exhibits the place my matches’ ancestors lived in the identical places as mine.

One distinction, although, is that testers can modify their ethnicity outcomes confidence degree from excessive, above, to low, beneath the place one among my Genetic Teams overlaps my ethnicity within the Netherlands.

You too can type your matches by Genetic Teams.

The outcomes present you not solely who’s within the group, however what number of of your matches are in that group too, which supplies perspective.

I wrote about Genetic Groups, here.

Subsequent, let’s take a look at how endogamy impacts your matches.


The variety of matches that an individual has who’s from a completely endogamous group and an individual with no endogamy could also be fairly totally different.

FamilyTreeDNA supplies a Family Matching feature that triangulates your matches and assigns them to your paternal or maternal facet through the use of recognized matches that you’ve linked to their profile playing cards in your tree. You should hyperlink folks for the Household Matching function often called “bucketing” to be enabled.

The folks you hyperlink are then processed for shared matches on the identical chromosome phase(s). Triangulated people are then deposited in your maternal, paternal, and each buckets.

Clearly, your two mother and father are the very best folks to hyperlink, but when they haven’t examined (or uploaded their DNA file from another vendor) and you’ve got different recognized kin, hyperlink them utilizing the Household Tree tab on the prime of your private web page.

I uploaded my Ancestry V4 equipment to make use of for example for linking. Let’s fake that’s my sister. If I had not already linked my Ancestry V4 equipment to “my sister’s” profile card, I’d need to do this and hyperlink different recognized people the identical means. Simply drag and drop the match to the proper profile card.

Observe {that a} full or half sibling will probably be listed as such at FamilyTreeDNA, however an equivalent twin will present as a possible father or mother/baby match to you. You’re more likely to discover a father or mother than an equivalent twin, however simply remember.

I’ve created a desk of FamilyTreeDNA bucketed match outcomes, by class, evaluating the variety of matches in endogamous classes with non-endogamous.

Whole Matches Maternal Matches Paternal Matches Each % Each % DNA Unassigned
100% Jewish 34,637 11,329 10,416 4,806 13.9 23.3
100% Jewish 32,973 10,700 9,858 4,606 14 23.7
100% Jewish 32,255 9,060 10,970 3,892 12 25.8
75% Jewish 24,232 11,846 Solely mom linked Solely mom linked Solely mom linked
100% Acadian 8093 3826 2299 1062 13 11
100% Acadian 7828 3763 1825 923 11.8 17
Not Endogamous 6760 3845 1909 13 0.19 14.5
Not Endogamous 7723 1470 3317 6 0.08 38
100% Native American 1,115 Unlinked Unlinked Unlinked
100% Native American 885 290 Unknown Can’t calculate with out no less than one hyperlink on either side

The 100% Jewish, Acadian, and Not Endogamous testers each have linked their mother and father, so their matches, if legitimate (which means not identical by chance, which I discussed here,) will match them plus one or the opposite father or mother.

One individual is 75% Jewish and has solely linked their Jewish mom.

The Native folks haven’t examined their mother and father, and the primary Native individual has not linked anybody of their tree. The second Native individual has solely linked a number of maternal matches, however their mom has not examined. They’re in search of their father.

It’s very tough to search out people who find themselves absolutely Native as testers. Moreover, Native individuals are under-sampled. If anybody is aware of of absolutely Native (or different endogamous) individuals who have examined and linked their mother and father or recognized kin of their timber, and can enable me to make use of their complete match numbers anonymously, please let me know.

As you’ll be able to see, Jewish, Acadian, and Native individuals are 100% endogamous, however many extra Jewish folks than Native folks have examined, so that you CAN’T decide endogamy by the overall variety of matches alone.

The truth is, so as:

  • Absolutely Jewish testers have about 4-5 occasions as many matches because the Acadian and Non-endogamous testers
  • Acadian and Non-endogamous testers have about 5-6 occasions as many matches because the Native American testers
  • Absolutely Jewish folks have about 30 occasions extra matches than the Native American testers

If an individual’s endogamy with a specific inhabitants is solely on their maternal or paternal facet, they gained’t have a major variety of folks associated to either side, which means few folks will fall into the “Each” bucket. Folks that can at all times be discovered within the ”Each” bucket are full siblings and their descendants, together with descendants of the tester, assuming their match is linked to their profiles within the tester’s tree.

Within the case of our Jewish testers, you’ll be able to simply see that the “Each” bucket may be very excessive. The Acadians are additionally increased than one would fairly count on with out endogamy. A non-endogamous individual may need a number of matches on either side, assuming the mother and father are usually not associated to one another.

A excessive variety of “Each” matches is an excellent indicator of endogamy throughout the identical inhabitants on each mother and father’ sides.

The proportion of people who find themselves assigned to the “Each” bucket is between 11% and 14% within the endogamous teams, and fewer than 1% within the non-endogamous group, so statistically not related.

As demonstrated by the Native folks in comparison with the Jewish testers, the overall variety of matches will be deceiving.

Nonetheless, being associated to each mother and father, as indicated by the “Each” bucket, except you have got pedigree collapse, is an effective indicator of endogamy.

In fact, in the event you don’t know who your kin are, you’ll be able to’t hyperlink them in your tree, so this kind of “hunt” gained’t usually assist folks in search of their shut relations.

Nonetheless, you might discover that you just’re matching folks PLUS each of their mother and father. If that’s the case, begin asking questions of these matches about their heritage.

A really excessive variety of complete matches, as in comparison with non-endogamous folks, mixed with another hints would possibly nicely level to Jewish heritage.

I included the % DNA Unassigned class as a result of this class, when each mother and father are linked, is the share of matches by likelihood, which means the match doesn’t match both of the tester’s mother and father. All the folks with folks listed in “Each” classes have linked each of their mother and father, not simply maternal and paternal kin.

Matching Location at MyHeritage

MyHeritage supplies an identical perform by location. Please be aware that it’s the situation of the tester, however which will nonetheless be fairly helpful.

The places are proven within the most-matches to least-matches order. Clicking on the situation exhibits the individuals who match you who’re from that location. This is able to be essentially the most helpful in conditions the place latest immigration has occurred. In my case, my great-grandfather from the Netherlands arrived within the 1860s, and my German ancestors arrived within the 1850s. Neither of these teams are endogamous, although, except it will be on a village degree.


Let’s shift to Genetic Affairs, a third-party device accessible to everybody.

Utilizing their AutoCluster function, Genetic Affairs clusters your matches collectively who match each one another and also you.

That is an instance of the primary few clusters in my AutoCluster. You possibly can see that I’ve a number of coloured clusters of varied sizes, however none are large.

Evaluate that to the next endogamous cluster, pattern courtesy of EJ Blom at Genetic Affairs.

In case your AutoCluster at Genetic Affairs appears one thing like this, an enormous orange blob within the higher left hand nook, you’re coping with endogamy.

Please additionally be aware that the scale of your cluster can also be a perform of each the variety of testers and the match threshold you choose. I at all times start through the use of the defaults. I wrote about using Genetic Affairs, here.

For those who tested at or transferred to MyHeritage, they too license AutoClusters, however have optimized the algorithm to tease out endogamous matches in order that their Jewish clients, specifically, don’t wind up with an enormous orange block of interrelated folks.

You gained’t see the “endogamy signature” large cluster within the nook, so that you’re much less seemingly to have the ability to discern endogamy from a MyHeritage cluster alone.

The commonality between these Jewish clusters at MyHeritage is that all of them are usually moderately uniform in dimension and small, with plenty of gray connecting virtually all of the blocks.

Gray cells point out individuals who match folks in two coloured teams. In different phrases, there may be typically no clear division in clusters between the mom’s facet and the daddy’s facet in Jewish clusters.

In non-endogamous conditions, even in the event you can’t establish the mother and father, the clusters ought to nonetheless fall into two sides, which means a bunch of clusters for every father or mother’s facet that aren’t associated to one another.

You possibly can learn extra about Genetic Affairs clusters and their tools, here. DNAGedcom.com additionally supplies a clustering device.

Endogamous Relationships

Endogamous estimated relationships are generally excessive. Please be aware the phrase, “generally.”

Utilizing the Shared cM Venture device relationship chart, here, at DNAPainter, folks with heavy endogamy will uncover that estimated relationships MAY be on the excessive facet, or the relationships could, maybe, be estimated too “shut” in time. That’s very true for extra distant relationships, however surprisingly, it’s not at all times true. The randomness of inheritance nonetheless comes into play, and so do potential unknown kin. Therefore, the phrases “could” are bolded and underscored.

Sadly, it’s typically said as “typical knowledge” that Jewish matches are “at all times” excessive, and first cousins seem as siblings. Let’s see what the precise information says.

At DNAPainter, you’ll be able to both enter the quantity of shared DNA (cM), or the p.c of shared DNA, or simply use the chart offered.

I’ve assembled a compilation of shut relationships in kits that I’ve entry to or from individuals who have been beneficiant sufficient to share their outcomes for this text.

I’ve used Jewish outcomes, which is a extremely endogamous inhabitants, in contrast with non-endogamous testers.

The “Jewish Precise” column experiences the overall quantity of shared DNA with that individual. In different phrases, somebody to their grandparent. The Common Vary is the common plus the vary from DNAPainter. The P.c Distinction is the % distinction between the precise quantity and the DNAPainter common.

You’ll see absolutely Jewish testers, at left, matching with their relations, and a Non-endogamous individual, at proper, matching with their identical relative.

Relationship Jewish Precise P.c Distinction than Common Common -Vary Non-endogamous Precise P.c Distinction than Common
Grandparent 2141 22 1754 (984-2482) 1742 <1 decrease
Grandparent 1902 8.5 1754 (984-2482) 1973 12
Sibling 3039 16 2613 (1613-3488) 2515 3.5 decrease
Sibling 2724 4 2613 (1613-3488) 2761 5.5
Half-Sibling 2184 24 1759 (1160-2436) 2127 21
Half-Sibling 2128 21 1759 (1160-2436) 2352 34
Aunt/Uncle 2066 18.5 1741 (1201-2282) 1849 6
Aunt/Uncle 2031 16.5 1741 (1201-2282) 2097 20
1C 1119 29 866 (396-1397) 959 11
1C 909 5 866 (396-1397) 789 9 decrease
1C1R 514 19 433 (102-980) 467 8
1C1R 459 6 433 (102-980) 395 9 decrease

These totals are from FamilyTreeDNA besides one from GEDMatch (one Jewish Half-sibling).

Totals could differ by vendor, even when matching with the identical individual. 23andMe consists of the X segments within the complete cMs and in addition counts absolutely equivalent segments twice. MyHeritage imputation appears to err on the beneficiant facet.

Nonetheless, in these dozen examples:

  • You possibly can see that the Jewish precise quantity of DNA shared is at all times greater than the common within the estimate.
  • The crimson means the overage is greater than 100 cM bigger.
  • The proportion distinction might be extra significant as a result of 100 cM is a smaller share of a 1754 grandparent connection than in comparison with a 433 cM 1C1R.

Nonetheless, you’ll be able to’t inform something about endogamy by simply anyone pattern, as a result of:

  • Among the Non-Endogamous matches are excessive too. That’s simply the way in which of random inheritance.
  • All the precise Jewish match numbers are throughout the revealed ranges, however on the excessive facet.

Moreover, it could actually get extra advanced.

Half Endogamous

I requested help from Jewish family tree researchers, and a beautiful woman, Sharon, reached out, compiled her phase info, and shared it with me, granting permission to share with you. A HUGE thanks to Sharon!

Sharon is half-Jewish through one father or mother, and her half-sibling is absolutely Jewish. Their half-sibling match to one another at Ancestry is 1756 cM with a longest phase of 164 cM.

How does Jewish matching differ in the event you’re half-Jewish versus absolutely Jewish? Let’s take a look at 21 individuals who match each Sharon and her absolutely Jewish half-sibling.

Sharon shared the variations in 21 recognized Jewish matches together with her and her half-sibling. I’ve added the Relationship Estimate Vary from DNAPainter and colorized the best of the 2 matches in yellow. Bolding within the complete cM column exhibits a price above the common vary for that relationship.

Whole Matching cMs is on the left, with Longest Phase on the best.

Whereas that is clearly not a scientific examine, it’s a consultant pattern.

The absolutely Jewish sibling carries extra Jewish DNA, which is on the market for different Jewish matches to match as a perform of endogamy (identical by chance/population), so I might have anticipated the absolutely Jewish sibling to match most if not all Jewish testers at a better degree than the half-Jewish sibling.

Nonetheless, that’s not universally what we see.

The absolutely Jewish sibling is not at all times the sibling with the best variety of matches to the opposite Jewish testers, though the half-Jewish tester has the bigger “Longest Phase” as a rule.

Roughly two-thirds of the time (13/21), the absolutely Jewish individual does have a better complete matching cM, however about one-third of the time (8/21), the half-Jewish sibling has a better matching cM.

About one-fourth of the time (5/21), the absolutely Jewish sibling has the longest matching phase, and about two-thirds of the time (13/21), the half-Jewish sibling does. In three instances, or about 14% of the time, the longest phase is equal which can point out that it’s the identical phase.

Due to endogamy, Jewish matches usually tend to have:

  • Bigger than common complete cM for the precise relationship
  • Extra and smaller matching segments

Nonetheless, as we have now seen, neither of these are definitive, nor at all times true. Jewish matches and relationships are usually not at all times overestimated.

Ancestry and Timber

Please be aware that Ancestry downweights some matches by eradicating some segments utilizing their Timber algorithm. Based mostly on my matches and different accounts that I handle, Ancestry doesn’t downweight within the 2-3rd cousin class, which is 90 cM and above, however they do start downweighting within the 3-4th cousin class, beneath 90 cM, the place my “Prolonged Household” class begins.

For those who’ve examined at Ancestry, you’ll be able to examine for your self.

By clicking on the quantity of DNA you share along with your match in your match listing at Ancestry, proven above, you’ll be taken to a different web page the place it is possible for you to to view the unweighted shared DNA with that match, which means the quantity of DNA shared earlier than the downweighting and elimination of some segments, proven beneath.

Given the downweighting, and the data within the spreadsheet offered by Sharon, it doesn’t seem that any of these matches would have been in a class to be downweighted.

Subsequently, for these and different shut matches, Timber wouldn’t be an element, however would probably be in additional distant matches.

Endogamous Segments

Endogamous matches are inclined to have smaller and extra segments. Small quantities of matching DNA are inclined to skew the overall DNA cM upwards.

How and why does this occur?

Ancestral DNA from additional again in time tends to be damaged into smaller segments.

Typically, particularly in endogamous conditions, two smaller segments, at one time separated from one another, handle to hitch again collectively once more and type a match, however the match is just attributable to ancestral segments – not due to a latest ancestor.

Please be aware that totally different distributors have totally different minimal matching cM thresholds, so smaller matches will not be accessible in any respect distributors. Do not forget that components like Timber and imputation can have an effect on matching as nicely.

Let’s check out an instance. I’ve created a chart the place two ancestors have their blue and pink DNA damaged into 4 cM segments.

They’ve youngsters, a blue baby and a pink baby, and the 2 youngsters, proven above, every inherited the identical blue 4 cM phase and the identical pink 4 cM phase from their respective mother and father. The opposite unlabeled pink and blue segments are usually not inherited by these two youngsters, so these unlabeled segments are irrelevant on this instance.

The mother and father could have had different youngsters who inherited those self same 4 cM labeled pink and blue segments as nicely, and if not, the mother and father’ siblings have been in all probability passing no less than among the identical DNA all the way down to their descendants too.

The blue and pink youngsters had youngsters, and their youngsters had youngsters – for a number of generations.

Time handed, and their descendants turned an endogamous group. These pink and blue 4 cM segments could at a while be misplaced throughout recombination within the descendants of every of their youngsters, proven by “Misplaced pink” and “Misplaced blue.”

Nonetheless, as a result of there may be solely a really restricted quantity of DNA throughout the endogamous group, their descendants could regain those self same segments once more from their “different father or mother” throughout recombination, downstream.

In every era, the DNA of the descendant carrying the unique blue or pink DNA phase is recombined with their accomplice. On condition that the companions are each members of the identical endogamous group, the 2 folks could have the identical pink and/or blue DNA segments. If one father or mother doesn’t carry the pink 4 cM phase, for instance, their offspring could obtain that ancestral pink phase from the opposite father or mother.

They may probably, and generally do, obtain that ancestral phase from each mother and father.

In our instance, the descendants of the blue baby, at left, misplaced the pink 4 cM phase in era 3, however a number of generations later, in era 11, that descendant baby inherited that very same pink 4 cM phase from their different father or mother. Subsequently, each the 4 cM blue and 4 cM pink segments at the moment are accessible to be inherited by the descendants in that line. I’ve proven the alternative state of affairs within the generational inheritance at proper the place the blue phase is misplaced and regained.

As soon as rejoined, that pink and blue phase will be handed alongside collectively for generations.

The necessary half, although, is that after these two segments butt up in opposition to one another once more throughout recombination, they aren’t simply two separate 4 cM segments, however one phase that’s 8 cM lengthy – that’s now equal to or above the distributors’ matching threshold.

This is the reason folks descended from endogamous populations typically have the next matching traits:

  • Extra matches
  • Many smaller phase matches
  • Their complete cM is usually damaged into extra, smaller segments

What does extra, smaller segments, seem like, precisely?

Extra, Smaller Segments

All of our distributors besides Ancestry have a chromosome browser for his or her clients to match their DNA to that of their matches visually.

Let’s check out some examples of what endogamous and non-endogamous matches seem like.

For instance, right here’s a display shot of a random Jewish second cousin match – 298 cM complete, divided into 12 segments, with a longest phase of 58 cM,

A second Jewish 2C with 323 cM complete, throughout 19 segments, with a 69 cM longest block.

A totally Acadian 2C match with 600 cM complete, throughout 27 segments, with a longest phase of 69 cM.

A second Acadian 2C with 332 cM complete, throughout 20 segments, with a longest phase of 42 cM.

Subsequent, a non-endogamous 2C match with 217 cM, throughout 7 segments, with a longest phase of 72 cM.

Right here’s one other non-endogamous 2C instance, with 169 shared cM, throughout 6 segments, with a longest phase of 70 cM.

Right here’s the second cousin information in a abstract desk. The take-away from that is the proportion of complete segments

Tester Inhabitants Whole cM Longest Block Whole Segments
Jewish 2C 298 58 12
Jewish 2C 323 69 19
Acadian 2C 600 69 27
Acadian 2C 332 42 20
Non-endogamous 2C 217 72 7
Non-endogamous 2C 169 70 6

You possibly can see extra examples and comparisons between Native American, Jewish and non-endogamous DNA people within the article, Concepts – Endogamy and DNA Segments.

I believe {that a} savvy mathematician may predict endogamy primarily based on longest block and complete phase info.

Lara Diamond, a mathematician, who writes at Lara’s Jewnealogy may be up for this problem. She simply revealed compiled matching and phase info in her Ashkenazic Shared DNA Survey Results for individuals who have an interest. You too can contribute to Laura’s information, here.

Endogamy, Segments, and Distant Relationships

Whereas not related to looking for shut kin, closely endogamous matches 3C and extra distant, to cite one among my Jewish mates, “dissolve right into a quagmire of endogamy and are exceedingly tough to unravel.”

In my very own Acadian endogamous line, I typically merely need to label them “Acadian” as a result of the DNA tracks again to so many ancestors in numerous strains. In different phrases, I can’t inform which ancestor the match is definitely pointing to as a result of the identical DNA segments or segments is/are carried by a number of ancestors and their descendants attributable to founder effect.

The distinction with the Acadians is that we are able to truly establish many or most of them, no less than sooner or later in time. As my cousin, Paul LeBlanc, as soon as stated, in the event you’re associated to at least one Acadian, you’re associated to all Acadians. Then he proceeded to inform me that he and I are associated 137 alternative ways. My head hurts!

It’s no surprise that endogamy is extremely tough past the primary few generations when it turns into one thing like multi-colored jello soup.

“Are Your Mother and father Associated?” Instrument

There’s one other device that you could make the most of to find out in case your mother and father are associated to one another.

To find out in case your mother and father are associated to one another, it’s worthwhile to find out about ROH, or Runs of Homozygosity (ROH).

ROH signifies that the DNA on each strands or copies of the identical chromosome is equivalent.

For a number of places in a row, ROH can simply occur simply by likelihood, however the longer the phase, the much less seemingly that commonality happens just by likelihood.

The excellent news is that you just don’t must know the id of both of your mother and father. You don’t want both of your father or mother’s DNA checks – simply your individual. You’ll must add your DNA file to GEDmatch, which is free.

Click on on “Are your mother and father associated?”

GEDMatch analyzes your DNA to see if any of your DNA, above an inexpensive matching threshold, is equivalent on each strands, indicating that you just inherited the very same DNA from each of your mother and father.

A official match, which means one which’s not by chance, will embody many contiguous matching places, usually a minimal of 500 SNPs or places in a row. GEDmatch’s minimal threshold for figuring out equivalent ancestral DNA (ROH) is 200 cM.

Right here’s my end result, together with the graphic for the primary two chromosomes. Discover the tiny inexperienced bars that present equivalent by likelihood tiny sliver segments.

I’ve no vital equivalent DNA, which means my mother and father are usually not associated to one another.

Subsequent, let’s take a look at an endogamous instance the place there are small, utterly equivalent segments throughout an individual’s chromosome

This individual’s Acadian mother and father are associated to one another, however distantly.

Subsequent, let’s take a look at a Jewish individual’s outcomes.

You’ll discover bigger inexperienced matching ROH, however not over 200 contiguous SNPs and seven cM.

GEDMatch experiences that this Jewish individual’s mother and father are in all probability not associated inside latest generations, nevertheless it’s clear that they do share DNA in widespread.

Folks whose mother and father are distantly associated have comparatively small, scattered matching segments. Nonetheless, in the event you’re seeing bigger ROH segments that might be giant sufficient to match in a genealogical setting, which means a number of better than 7 cM and 500 SNPs,, you could be coping with a distinct kind of state of affairs the place cousins have married in latest generations. The bigger the matching segments, usually, the nearer in time.

Blogger Kitty Cooper wrote an article, here, about discovering that your mother and father are associated on the first cousin degree, and what their GEDMatch “Are Your Mother and father Associated” outcomes seem like.

Let’s search for extra clues.


There MAY be an endogamy clue within the surnames of the folks you match.

Viewing surnames is simpler in the event you obtain your match listing, which you are able to do at each vendor besides Ancestry. I’m not referring to the phase information, however the details about your matches themselves.

I offered directions within the latest article, How to Download Your DNA Match Lists and Segment Files, here.

For those who suspect endogamy for any purpose, take a look at your closest matches and see if there’s a discernable pattern within the surnames, or places, or any commonality between your matches to one another.

For instance, Jewish, Acadian, and Native surnames could also be recognizable, as could places.

You possibly can consider in both or each of two methods:

  • The surnames of your closest matches. Closest matches listed first will probably be your default match order.
  • Your most incessantly occurring surnames, minus extraordinarily widespread names like Smith, Jones, and so forth., except they’re additionally in your closest matches. To make the most of this kind of matching, type the spreadsheet in surname order after which scan or depend the variety of folks with every surname.

Listed here are some examples from our testers.

Jewish – Closest surname matches.

  • Roth
  • Weiss
  • Goldman
  • Schonwald
  • Levi
  • Cohen
  • Slavin
  • Goodman
  • Sender
  • Trebatch

Acadian – Closest surname matches.

  • Bergeron
  • Hebert
  • Bergeron
  • Marcum
  • Muise
  • Legere
  • Gaudet
  • Perry
  • Verlander
  • Trombley

Native American – Closest surname matches.

  • Ortega
  • Begay
  • Valentine
  • Hayes
  • Montoya
  • Solar Bear
  • Martin
  • Tsosie
  • Chiquito
  • Yazzie

You could acknowledge these classes of surnames instantly.

If not, Google is your good friend. Remove widespread surnames, then Google for a number of collectively at a time and see what emerges.

Essentially the most uncommon surnames are seemingly your greatest bets.


One other solution to get some concept of what teams folks with these surnames would possibly belong to is to enter the surname within the FamilyTreeDNA surname search.

Go to the primary FamilyTreeDNA web page, however DO NOT signal on.

Scroll down till you see this picture.

Kind the surname into the search field. You’ll see how many individuals have examined with that surname, together with tasks the place mission directors have included that surname indicating that the mission could also be of curiosity to no less than some folks with that surname.

Right here’s a portion of the mission listing for Cohen, a conventional Jewish surname.

These outcomes are for Muise, an Acadian surname.

Clicking by to related surname tasks, and probably contacting the volunteer mission administrator can go a really great distance in serving to you collect and sift info. Clearly, they’ve an curiosity on this matter.

For instance, right here’s the Muise surname within the Acadian AmerIndian project. Two nice hints right here – Acadian heritage and Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Repeat for the stability of surnames in your listing to search for commonalities, together with places on the general public mission pages.


Among the vendor match recordsdata embody location info. Every individual in your match listing can have the chance on the vendor the place they examined to incorporate location info in a wide range of methods, both for his or her ancestors or themselves.

The place potential, it’s best to type or scan the obtain file for this kind of info.

Ancestry doesn’t present or facilitate a match listing, however you’ll be able to nonetheless create your individual to your closest 20 or 30 matches in a spreadsheet.

MyHeritage supplies widespread surname and ancestral location info for each match. How cool is that!

Y DNA, Mitochondrial DNA, and Endogamy

Haplogroups for each Y and mitochondrial DNA can point out and generally verify endogamy. In different instances, the haplogroup gained’t assist, however the matches and their location info simply would possibly.

FamilyTreeDNA is the one vendor that gives Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA checks that embody extremely granular haplogroups together with matches and extra instruments.

23andMe supplies high-level haplogroups which can or will not be satisfactory to pinpoint a haplogroup that signifies endogamy.

In fact, solely males carry Y DNA that tracks to the direct paternal (surname) line, however everybody carries their mom’s mitochondrial DNA that represents their mom’s mom’s mom’s, or direct matrilineal line.

Some haplogroups are recognized to be intently related to specific ethnicities or populations, like Native Individuals, Pacific Islanders, and a few Jewish folks.

Haplogroups attain again in time earlier than family tree and may give us a way of group that’s not accessible by both trying within the mirror or by conventional data.

This Native American man is a member of high-level haplogroup Q-M242. Nonetheless, some males who carry this haplogroup are usually not Native, however are of European or Center Japanese origin.

I entered the haplogroup within the FamilyTreeDNA Discover tool, which I wrote about, here.

Checking the data about this haplogroup reveals that their widespread ancestor descended from an Asian man about 30,000 years in the past.

The migration path within the Individuals explains why this individual would have an endogamous heritage.

Our tester would obtain a way more refined haplogroup if he upgraded to the Massive Y take a look at at FamilyTreeDNA, which might take away all doubt.

Nonetheless, even with out further testing, details about his matches at FamilyTreeDNA could also be very illuminating.

The Q-M242 Native man’s Y DNA matches males with extra granular haplogroups, proven above, at left. On the Haplogroup Origins report, you’ll be able to see that these folks have all chosen the “US (Native American)” nation possibility.

One other great tool can be to examine the public Y haplotree, here, and the public mitochondrial tree here, for self-reported ancestor location info for a selected haplogroup.

Right here’s an instance of mitochondrial haplogroup A2 and some subclades on the general public mitochondrial tree. You possibly can see that the haplogroup is present in Mexico, the US (Native,) Canada, and plenty of further Caribbean, South, and Central American nations.

In fact, Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) inform a laser-focused story of 1 particular line, every. The good information, in the event you’re in search of details about your mom or father, the Y is your father’s direct paternal (surname) line, and mitochondrial is your mom’s direct matrilineal line.

Y and mitochondrial DNA outcomes mixed with ethnicity, autosomal matching, and the big selection of different instruments that open doorways, it is possible for you to to disclose a substantial amount of details about whether or not you have got endogamous heritage or not – and if that’s the case, from the place.

I’ve offered a useful resource for stepping by and interpreting your Y DNA results, here, and mitochondrial DNA, here.

Uncover for Y DNA Solely

For those who’re a feminine, you might really feel disregarded of Y DNA testing and what it could actually inform you about your heritage. Nonetheless, there’s a again door.

You possibly can make the most of the Y DNA haplogroups of your closest autosomal matches at each FamilyTreeDNA and 23andMe to disclose info

Haplogroup info is on the market within the obtain recordsdata for each distributors, along with the Household Finder desk view, beneath, at FamilyTreeDNA, or in your particular person matches profile playing cards at each 23andMe and FamilyTreeDNA.

You possibly can enter any Y DNA haplogroup within the FamilyTreeDNA Discover tool, here.

You’ll be handled to:

  • Your Haplogroup Story – what number of testers have this haplogroup (up to now), the place the haplogroup is from, and the haplogroup’s age. On this case, the haplogroup was born within the Netherlands about 250 years in the past, give or take 200 years. I do know that it was 1806 or earlier primarily based on the widespread ancestor of the lads who examined.
  • Nation Frequency – warmth map of the place the haplogroup is discovered on the earth.
  • Notable Connections – well-known and notorious (this haplogroup’s closest notable individual is Leo Tolstoy).
  • Migration Map – migration path out of Africa and thru the remainder of the world.
  • Historical Connections – historical burials. His closest historical match is from about 1000 years in the past in Ukraine. Their shared ancestor lived about 2000 years in the past.
  • Steered Tasks – primarily based on the surname, tasks that different matches have joined, and haplogroups.
  • Scientific Particulars – age estimates, confidence intervals, graphs, and the mutations that outline this haplogroup.

I wrote in regards to the Uncover device within the article, FamilyTreeDNA DISCOVER Launches – Including Y DNA Haplogroup Ages.

Endogamy Instruments Abstract Tables

Endogamy is a troublesome nut generally, particularly in the event you’re ranging from scratch. With a view to make this matter a bit simpler and to create a reference device for you, I’ve created three abstract tables.

  • Numerous endogamy-related instruments accessible at every vendor which can or could help with evaluating endogamy
  • Instruments and their capability to detect endogamy in numerous teams
  • Instruments greatest suited to help folks in search of details about unknown mother and father or grandparents

Abstract of Endogamy Instruments by Vendor

Please be aware that GEDMatch isn’t a DNA testing vendor, however they settle for uploads and do have some instruments that the testing distributors don’t.

 Instrument 23andMe Ancestry FamilyTreeDNA MyHeritage GEDMatch
Ethnicity Sure Sure Sure Sure Use the distributors
Ethnicity Portray Sure + segments Sure, restricted Sure + segments Sure
Ethnicity Phasing Sure Partial Sure No
DNA Communities No Sure No No
Genetic Teams No No No Sure
Household Matching aka Bucketing No No Sure No
Chromosome Browser Sure No Sure Sure Sure
AutoClusters By Genetic Affairs No By Genetic Affairs Sure, included Sure, with subscription
Match Checklist Obtain Sure, restricted # of matches No Sure Sure Sure
Tasks No No Sure No
Y DNA Excessive-level haplogroup solely No Sure, full haplogroup with Massive Y, matching, instruments, Uncover No
Mitochondrial DNA Excessive-level haplogroup solely No Sure, full haplogroup with mtFull, matching, instruments No
Public Y Tree No No Sure No
Public Mito Tree No No Sure No
Uncover Y DNA – public No No Sure No
ROH No No No No Sure

Abstract of Endogamous Populations Recognized by Every Instrument

The next chart supplies a suggestion for which instruments are helpful for the next kinds of endogamous teams. Bolded instruments require that each mother and father be descended from the identical endogamous group, however a number of different instruments give extra definitive outcomes with increased quantities of endogamy.

Y and mitochondrial DNA testing are usually not affected by admixture, autosomal DNA or something from the “different” father or mother.

Instrument Jewish Acadian Anabaptist Native Different/Basic
Ethnicity Sure No No Sure Pacific Islander
Ethnicity Portray Sure No No Sure Pacific Islander
Ethnicity Phasing Sure, if totally different No No Sure, if totally different Pacific Islander, if totally different
DNA Communities Sure Probably Probably Sure Pacific Islander
Genetic Teams Sure Probably Probably Sure Pacific Islander
Household Matching aka Bucketing Sure Sure Probably Sure Pacific Islander
Chromosome Browser Probably Probably Sure, as soon as segments or ancestors recognized Probably Pacific Islander, probably
Whole Matches Sure, in comparison with non-endogamous No No No No, unknown
AutoClusters Sure Sure Unsure, in all probability Sure Pacific Islander
Estimated Relationships Excessive Not at all times Typically No Typically Unsure, in all probability
Relationship Vary Excessive Probably, generally Probably Probably Probably Pacific Islander, probably
Extra, Smaller Segments Sure Sure In all probability Sure Pacific Islander, in all probability
Mother and father Associated Some however minimal Probably Unsure In all probability much like Jewish Unsure, Probably
Surnames In all probability In all probability In all probability Not Probably Probably
Places Probably In all probability In all probability Not In all probability In all probability Pacific Islander
Tasks In all probability In all probability Probably Probably In all probability Pacific Islander
Y DNA Sure, typically Sure, typically No Sure Pacific Islander
Mitochondrial DNA Sure, typically Typically No Sure Pacific Islander
Y public tree In all probability not alone No No Sure Pacific Islander
MtDNA public tree In all probability not No No Sure Pacific Islander
Y DNA Uncover Sure Probably In all probability not, possibly tasks Sure Pacific Islander

Abstract of Endogamy Instruments to Help Folks Searching for Unknown Mother and father and Grandparents

This desk supplies a abstract of when every of the varied instruments will be helpful to:

  • Folks in search of unknown shut kin
  • Individuals who already know who their shut kin are, however are in search of further info or clues about their family tree

I thought-about ranking these on a 1 to 10 scale, however the relative usefulness of those instruments relies on many components, so totally different instruments will probably be kind of helpful to totally different folks.

For instance, ethnicity may be very helpful if somebody is admixed from totally different populations, and even 100% of a selected endogamous inhabitants. It’s much less helpful if the tester is 100% European, no matter whether or not they’re in search of shut kin or not. Conversely, even “vanilla” ethnicity can be utilized to rule out majority or latest admixture with many populations.

Instruments Unknown Shut Relative Seekers Identified Shut Kin – Improve Family tree
Ethnicity Sure, to establish or rule out populations Sure
Ethnicity Portray Sure, probably, relying on inhabitants Sure, probably, relying on inhabitants
Ethnicity Phasing Sure, probably, relying on inhabitants Sure, probably, relying on inhabitants
DNA Communities Sure, probably, relying on inhabitants Sure, probably, relying on inhabitants
Genetic Teams Probably, relying on inhabitants Probably, relying on inhabitants
Household Matching aka Bucketing Not if mother and father are fully unknown, however sure if one father or mother is understood Sure
Chromosome Browser Unlikely Sure
AutoClusters Sure Sure, particularly at MyHeritage if Jewish
Estimated Relationships Excessive Not No
Relationship Vary Excessive Not reliably No
Extra, Smaller Segments Unlikely Unlikely aside from affirmation
Match Checklist Obtain Sure Sure
Surnames Sure Sure
Places Sure Sure
Tasks Sure Sure
Y DNA Sure, males solely, direct paternal line, identifies surname lineage Sure, males solely, direct paternal line, identifies and appropriately locations surname lineage
Mitochondrial DNA Sure, each sexes, direct matrilineal line solely Sure, each sexes, direct matrilineal line solely
Public Y Tree Sure for places Sure for places
Public Mito Tree Sure for places Sure for places
Uncover Y DNA Sure, for heritage info Sure, for heritage info
Mother and father Associated – ROH Probably Much less helpful


A HUGE thanks to a number of individuals who contributed photos and knowledge with the intention to present correct and expanded info on the subject of endogamy. Many didn’t need to be talked about by identify, however you understand who you might be!!!

When you have info so as to add, please submit within the feedback.


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